Operation Barbarossa June 1941 -
Invasion of the Soviet Union
Operation Barbarossa - Wikipedia
Ukrainian Labourers in Nazi Germany
1939 - 1945
Ukrainians removed from Ukraine World
Forced Labour under German Rule World
Ukrainians saved Lives World War 2 -
1941 NKVD Mass Executions Western Ukraine
Chronically Order of Events
The following information was obtained from the following
"Echoes and Reflections - Leaders in Holocaust Education"
January 30 - February 1
Adolf Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany.
February 27 - March 5
Reichstag (German Parliament) arson leads to state of
emergency. Hitler presents an emergency order that voids
important basic civil rights.
Reichstag elections: The Nazis gain 44 percent of the vote.
The Nazis establish the Dachau (Germany) concentration camp
to imprison (without trial) people they consider their
The Nazis sponsor the Enabling Act, a bill that would give
Hitler’s government dictatorial powers for four years. To
make sure the law passes, the Nazis imprison Communists and
The Nazis declare a boycott of all Jewish businesses in
The Nazi government declares that Jews are debarred from
working in the civil service and strips them of their equal
Jewish dietary laws prohibited; no kosher butchering is
The school quota system limits the number of Jewish high
school and university students in Germany.
The Nazis burn thousands of anti-Nazi Jewish-authored and
Forced sterilization of German citizens with congenital
Germany is proclaimed a one-party state.
October 14 - 19
Germany quits the League of Nations and disarmament talks.
The Nazi Party gets 92 percent of the vote in one-party
The German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact is signed.
“Night of the Long Knives”: Hitler orders the elimination of
the main figures in the SA to prevent rivalry between the SA
and the SS and the German army.
German president Hindenburg dies: Hitler merges the offices
of chancellor and president and becomes the Reichsfuehrer,
thereby making him the sole and unrivalled leader of
Germany reclaims the Saar region (an area of Germany that
was administered by France under League of Nations
supervision following World War I in accordance with the
Treaty of Versailles.
Military conscription in Germany begins, violating the
Treaty of Versailles.
The German army becomes “all-Aryan,” meaning Jews are not
allowed to serve.
The Nuremberg Laws are enacted, defining who is a Jew
according to racial theory, banning marriage between Jews
and non-Jews, and making Jews second-class citizens.
The German army enters the Rhineland (region along the Rhine
River in western Germany), violating the Treaty of
The Spanish Civil War begins.
The Olympic Games begin in Berlin (Germany).
The Four-Year Plan (the economic plan to prepare Germany for
war) is unveiled.
The Rome-Berlin Axis Agreement is signed between Italy and
Germany based on political interests.
and Japan sign a military pact.
Pope Pius XI issues a statement against racism.
Buchenwald (Germany) concentration camp is established.
The German army is ordered to prepare for war.
Anschluss: Germany annexes Austria.
Recognition of Jewish organizations in Germany is revoked.
Jewish businesses have to register as such.
“Operation June”: Mass arrests of Jews in the Reich and
banishment to concentration camps begin.
Anti-Jewish economic policies restrict Jews’ access to many
fields of activity.
July 6 - 15
Conference: Representatives of Great Britain, United States,
France, and other countries meet in Evian, France, to
discuss the problem of Jewish refugees trying to emigrate
from the Reich. The conference concludes with no practical
Compulsory middle names (Sarah for women and Israel for men)
for Jews in Germany are required in order to identify them
The Munich Agreement: England and France accept German
annexation of parts of Czechoslovakia.
Passports of German Jews are marked with the letter “J.”
17,000 Polish-born Jews are expelled from Germany to Poland;
most are interned in Zbaszyn (Poland).
November 7 - 10
The Kristallnacht Pogrom: Almost one hundred Jews are
murdered and Jewish synagogues and Jewish businesses are
burned and vandalized across Germany and Austria.
adopts antisemitic racial laws.
All Jewish businesses are forcibly handed over to Germans;
Jews are forbidden from practicing medicine or law or
attending universities; a fine of one billion Reichsmarks is
imposed on Jews.
Jewish children are banned from German schools.
Germans occupy Bohemia and Moravia, thus liquidating the
The civil war in Spain ends.
The MS St. Louis, a ship crowded with 937 Jewish refugees,
is turned away by Cuba, the United States, and other
countries, and returns to Europe.
Germany and the Soviet Union sign the Non-Aggression Pact;
the pact includes a secret section that determines the
partition of Poland.
Germany invades Poland, beginning World War II.
Great Britain, France, India, Australia, and New Zealand
declare war on Germany.
Soviets invade Poland.
Reinhard Heydrich (head of security police) orders the
establishment of Jewish councils (Judenrate) and the
concentration of Jews in the larger cities of Poland.
is partitioned between Germany and the Soviet Union.
The Warsaw (Poland) Judenrat is established.
“resettlement” in the Lublin district of Poland begins;
plans are made to establish a Jewish “reservation.”
The first ghetto is established in Piotrkow Trybunalski,
Civil administration (Generalgouvernement) is established in
Poland; Polish elite are persecuted and murdered; slave
labor is imposed on Jews between the ages of 14–60.
in Poland are required to wear the Jewish Badge (Star of
The Soviets invade Finland.
The Nazis initiate use of gas vans to eliminate patients with
Jewish property in Generalgouvernement is registered.
The Katyn Massacre: The Soviets execute thousands of Polish
officers in the Soviet-occupied part of Poland.
Germany invades Denmark and Norway.
The Lodz (Poland) ghetto is sealed.
invades Belgium and the Netherlands; Neville Chamberlain
resigns; Winston Churchill becomes the prime minister of
The Allies evacuate forces to England at Dunkirk.
Germany occupies Paris; the first deportation of Polish
political prisoners to Auschwitz (Poland) concentration camp
Hitler presents Mussolini with the Madagascar Plan, a plan
to deport all Jews to the island near the shores of Eastern
The Vichy France government is formed.
The Battle of Britain begins.
Germany declares the “total blockade of Britain.”
The German “Blitz” on England reaches a climax with massive
air raids on British cities.
The French government sets fierce anti-Jewish legislation.
Jewish businesses in occupied Netherlands are registered.
Jewish property in Belgium is registered.
The Warsaw ghetto is sealed.
The Krakow (Poland) ghetto is sealed.
Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece.
Germany occupies Salonika, the largest Jewish community in
The Lublin (Poland) ghetto is sealed.
“Commissar Order”: Prior to the German invasion of the
Soviet Union, the Wehrmacht high command authorizes its
soldiers to murder any “suspect” of opposition, mainly Jews
and Communists, thereby making the German army involved in
war crimes in the occupied territories.
Barbarossa”: The German invasion of the Soviet Union marks
the beginning of the “Final Solution.”
The Einsatzgruppen begin mass killings in the Soviet Union.
The Romanian “Iron Guard” kill 1,500 Jews in Iasi, Romania.
Germany occupies Lvov, Poland; 4,000 Jews are killed by July
Einsatzgruppe D begins operating in Bessarabia (Romania);
160,000 Jews are shot by August 31.
The Kishinev (Romania) ghetto is established; 10,000 Jews
Hermann Goering orders Heydrich to plan the “Final
The murder of the Jews of Vilna (Lithuania) begins at Ponary,
south of Vilna.
50,000 Jews are confined in the Bialystok (Poland) ghetto.
in Pinsk (Belorussia); 10,000 are Jews killed in three days.
Jews in Slovakia and the protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
are ordered to wear the Jewish Badge.
first experimental gassings are conducted at Auschwitz.
siege of Leningrad (Russia) begins.
Jews are deported to Transnistria between Romania and the
Soviet Union; 90,000 die.
Jews are ordered to wear the Jewish Badge.
29 - 30
33,771 Jews are murdered at Babi Yar near Kiev (Ukraine).
The Vitebsk (Belorussia) ghetto is liquidated; Germans
murder more than 16,000 Jews.
Deportation of German and Austrian Jews to ghettos in the
20,000 Jews are transported to Dalnik (Ukraine); Germans and
Romanians murder all of them.
Germans murder thousands of Kovno (Lithuania) Jews.
The first transport (of prisoners of war) reaches Majdanek
(Poland) extermination camp.
A ghetto-camp is established in Theresienstadt, near Prague
30,000 Riga (Latvia) Jews are arrested and subsequently shot
The Soviets launch a counteroffensive on Moscow.
The Japanese attack Pearl Harbor; the United States enters
World War II; four days later, Germany and Italy declare war
on the United States.
The German army issues “Night and Fog”: an order prescribing
repressive measures against resistance movements in the
German-occupied countries of Western Europe.
Gas vans are introduced at Chelmno (Poland) extermination
Romanians murder more than 40,000 Jews at the Bogdanovka
33,500 of 57,000 Jews in Vilna have been murdered.
The Jewish underground in Vilna issues a partisan manifesto
calling Jews to fight back against the Germans.
The concentration and expulsion of Dutch Jewry begins.
Germans begin deportation of more than 10,000 Jews from Lodz
The Wannsee Conference takes place.
The Jewish underground is established in Vilna.
The Germans deport more than 30,000 Jews from Lodz to their
deaths in Chelmno.
58,000 Slovakian Jews are deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau
The first transport of approximately 1,000 French Jews to
The Einsatzgruppen report that there are no Jews left in the
The first mass killing in Sobibor (Poland) extermination
Jews in Holland are ordered to wear the Jewish Badge.
The Czech underground assassinates Reinhard Heydrich; in
retaliation, the Germans obliterate the Czech village of
Jews in Belgium and France are ordered to wear the Jewish
The BBC announces 700,000 Jews have been killed in Poland.
June 22 - July
The first transports of Jews from Drancy internment camp in
France to Auschwitz-Birkenau begin; Germans begin deporting
Belgian and Dutch Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau.
Himmler orders elimination of all Jews in General government
by the end of 1942.
The mass deportation from the Warsaw ghetto to Treblinka
(Poland) extermination camp begins.
The Jewish Fighting Organization (Z.O.B.) is founded in
August 8 - 13
The US delays information on a plan to annihilate Jews to
verify sources. Germans and Croatians begin deporting
Croatian Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau.
Deportations from Lvov to Belzec (Poland) extermination camp
begin; 50,000 Jews are gassed.
The Battle of Stalingrad (Russia) begins.
The British begin a counteroffensive at El Alamein, Egypt.
The first deportations from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz-Birkenau
The Allies invade North Africa.
The Soviets counterattack near Stalingrad (Russia).
November 25 - 26
A massive round-up of Norwegian Jewry by Germans and
Norwegian collaborators begins.
Deportations to Belzec stop.
The Allies condemn German mass murder.
Jews launch an armed resistance to deportations from the
The Germans surrender at Stalingrad.
deportation of 10,000 Jews from Bialystok to Treblinka
The first transports from Salonika to Auschwitz-Birkenau
The first transport of Sinti-Roma reaches Auschwitz-Birkenau.
Jews of Thrace (Greece) are deported to Treblinka.
The first deportations from Salonika arrive at Auschwitz-Birkenau.
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins.
Bermuda Conference: A conference convened by the United
States and Great Britain ostensibly to find solutions for
The leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising die.
The Lvov ghetto is liquidated.
Himmler orders liquidation of all ghettos in occupied Soviet
Four crematoria are completed at Auschwitz-Birkenau.
The Allies invade Sicily (Italy).
The uprising at Treblinka begins.
The first of five organized groups leave the Vilna ghetto to
join the partisans.
The Bialystok ghetto is liquidated.
The Vilna underground uprising fails.
Belgian Jews are arrested for deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau.
The Vilna ghetto is liquidated.
October 1 - 2
Danish Jews are rescued.
The uprising at Sobibor begins.
Jews of Rome are deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau.
The Minsk (Belorussia) ghetto is liquidated.
Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine) is liberated; 15 of 80,000 Jews
Germans launch “Operation Harvest Festival” (Erntefest),
concentrated large scale mass executions to liquidate all
remaining Jews in the Lublin district and Lublin ghetto.
Jewish partisans liberate Jews in Borshchev (Ukraine).
The War Refugee Board is established.
The Siege of Leningrad ends.
Hitler orders German troops into Hungary.
President Roosevelt warns Hungary to refrain from
Two Jewish prisoners deliver “Auschwitz Protocols.”
The Hungarian government registers Jews and confiscates
Allied forces mount a major offensive in central Italy.
Mass deportations of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau
Americans occupy Rome.
D-Day (Invasion of Normandy)
Germany launches the first V-1 rockets at England.
Minsk is liberated; few of 80,000 Jews survive.
The Hungarian government halts deportations.
The Kovno ghetto is liquidated.
Jewish partisans help liberate Vilna; 2,500 of 57,000 Jews
An attempt to assassinate Hitler fails.
Lvov is liberated; 110,000 Jews are dead.
The Red Cross visits Theresienstadt.
The Soviet Army liberates Majdanek.
The liquidation of the Lodz ghetto begins; 74,000 Jews are
deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau.
The Slovak National Uprising begins.
Antwerp (Belgium) is liberated; fewer than 5,000 Jews
Churchill announces formation of Jewish Brigade.
The Polish uprising in Warsaw is crushed.
The Sonderkommando uprising at Auschwitz-Birkenau begins.
Germans stop gassings at Auschwitz-Birkenau.
Deportations from Budapest (Hungary) resume.
The Battle of the Bulge
The Soviets liberate half of Budapest.
The Soviets liberate Warsaw; few Jews remain.
Auschwitz-Birkenau is abandoned; the death march of
The Soviets liberate the Lodz ghetto.
The Soviets liberate Auschwitz-Birkenau.
40,000 prisoners are marched out of Gross-Rosen (Poland)
February 13 - 14
Royal Air Force (RAF) and United States Air Force (USAF) air
raids devastate Dresden (Germany).
Americans liberate Buchenwald.
President Roosevelt dies; he is succeeded by Harry Truman.
British forces liberate Bergen-Belsen (Germany)
American and Soviet troops meet at the River Elbe near
Mussolini is shot.
Hitler and his companion, Eva Braun, commit suicide.
The Soviets occupy Berlin.
Mauthausen (Austria) concentration camp is liberated by the
Germany surrenders to the Allies.
V-E (Victory in Europe) Day
The Potsdam Conference
August 6 - 9
United States drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
The Nuremberg Trials begin.