My Uncle Paul’s Death Notice from Siberia.

(Double click on image to enlarge)

I dedicate this page to my:

Uncles Stefan and Pavlo Karaszkewycz.

They were  forcibly taken to Siberia for reasons unknown. My uncle Stefan, after years in Siberia returned home and died shortly after and my uncle Pavlo is buried out there somewhere.  At the time his whereabouts was unknown, until we received a Death Notice in 1969 (see below second photo). Family in Ukraine sent this Notice to us in Australia.  I remember father crying for months.

To my mother-in-law's whole family, with the exception of Auntie Sofia Svynko (who was not in her village at the time), were sent by cattle train into Siberia. My wife’s mother did not know where they were until we found them in 2010. We visited my wife’s two surviving uncles in that year. They told us horrific stories which were beyond belief. How can anyone endure such atrocious conditions.

One can understand the hatred they have for their oppressors, the Soviets. They say that nothing has changes, only they are now called Muscovitess.

They were released in 1967 to be told that the charges against them have been dropped. They were also told that they could not return to their village as it was totally destroyed by the Polish Army during Operation Visla in 1947.

Refer to

To every Ukrainian family; the vast majority can recount similar stories of their families.


Map of the Soviet Gulag Slave Labour Camps

(Double click on image to enlarge)


This Page is dedicated to my:

Uncles Paul and Stefan Karaszkewycz and

my mother-in-law's Svynko Family


Websites detailing atrocities committed against Ukraine and its people


The Soviet Union created the Gulag Forced labour Camps shortly after the 1917 revolution.

Formal Gulag Camps were inaugurated by a Soviet decree on 15 April 1919.

The definite end is not really known. However, we know that the Svynko family were released in 1956.

It is reported that the Gulag was radically reduced in size following Stalin's death in 1953.

Wikipedia Gulag Map

Gulag - Encyclopaedia Britannica

USSR's Concentration Camps 1029 - 1960's - We Remember

GULAG, History, Camps, Conditions, Economy, Effects, Facts and Quotes - Anne Applebaum  

Soviet Forced Labor Camps and Struggle for Freedom - Online Exhibit

1954 Ukrainians rose up against the Soviet GULAG at Kengir Kazakhstan

Classic Latvian Work About the Gulag, in English

Gulag: Soviet Forced Labour Camps and the Struggle for Freedom

Seven million died in the ‘forgotten’ Ukrainian holocaust

Soviet Gulags

Why were people sent to the Gulag?

Soviet Forced Labour Camps and Struggle for Freedom

Kolyma region


Exterminated orders of Trotsky

Case Study: Stalin’s Purges

The Gulag: Lost Millions

Gulag: A History by Anne Applebaum (2003),

Introduction to the GULAG. History of the Soviet Union

Stalin and the Ukrainian Massacre

Wikipedia – Kulak

Mail Online News

Soviet Union, Stalin’s regime (1924-53): 20 000 000 Death Toll

Joseph Stalin 1879 – 1953


Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-war Years

The Gulag: Communism’s Penal Colonies Revisited

Йосип Сліпий (Josyf Slipyj) (1893 - 1984)

Gulag Forced Labour Camps 1917 - 1956

Perm-36: Erasing the Gulags

Worked to death - The Economist